The adjournment came after a two-hours delay in the start of the proceedings.
Security officials inside the courtroom said the delay was caused by Mr Morsi’s insistence not to change into the prison uniform customarily worn by defendants, part of his refusal to recognise the trial’s legitimacy.
The officials spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorised to speak to the media.
Mr Morsi and the others are charged with inciting murder and could face the death penalty if convicted.
It was his first public appearance since the military coup that ousted him on 3 July. He was flown by helicopter to the trial venue, a police academy in eastern Cairo.
If convicted, he and 14 other defendants could face the death penalty.