Speaking in Birmingham, the Labour leader set out the pledges based on policies including a rise in the living wage and extending free child care.
Mr Miliband, who has already promised more immigration controls and a “rescue plan” for the NHS, said the changes were fundamental for economic recovery.
He addressed about 1,500 party activists at the rally, which was held with 54 days to go until the general election on 7 May.
Labour party members were told: “Today we set out how we can replace a failed, tired government for the few with a government that is truly for all the people of Britain.”
Mr Miliband said the choice at the forthcoming general election was “not simply between parties and leaders, but different visions of our country”.
The party’s pledge card sets out five promises to voters:
A strong economic foundation
Higher living standards for working families
An NHS with the time to care
Controls on immigration
A country where the next generation can do better than the last
Mr Miliband added: “The Tories say they want an election about leadership. Well be my guest.
“Because Britain does face a choice about the type of leadership it wants. It is not leadership to say ‘we’re all in it together’, while cutting taxes for millionaires and imposing the cruel, vindictive, unfair bedroom tax, a tax soon to be abolished with a Labour government.
“It is not leadership to be strong in the face of the weak but always weak in the face of the strong.
“And it is certainly not leadership to claim to be a strong leader but to refuse to defend your record in front of the British people in a TV election debate.
“Let me tell you what leadership is: It is about having strong, consistent ideas to change the country.It is about standing up for those ideas, through thick and thin, even in the face of powerful forces.
“And it is about standing up for people from every background and every walk of life, not just those with the access, the power and the wealth. That’s what matters in leadership. That’s the leadership I will bring.”