Series 1 Episode 3
First Broadcast:

In this final programme of the series, Richard Rudgley meets Neanderthal Man - our supposedly stupid cousin who became extinct 30,000 years ago.

Richard travels to Israel where early moderns and Neanderthals coincided for tens of thousands of years. And he visits Portugal, where the skeleton of a child caused an international outcry when it was suggested he might be the hybrid offspring of Neanderthal and modern interbreeding.

Richard also challenges the notion that Neanderthals became extinct because they were 'sub-human': Neanderthals survived for over a quarter of a million years, so their extinction wasn't due to any lack of intelligence or resourcefulness.

Coming full circle from the beginning of the series, Richard questions the nature of progress in the civilised, intelligent, human world and wonders what we might learn from the lives of our Stone Age ancestors.

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Anthropologist and author Richard Rudgley sets off on an epic journey back in time and around the world to discover the real roots of civilisation