There are many resources on Victorian Britain specifically written for children. Most libraries have a good selection of books.
Larger reference libraries have copies of historical documents for that period. Especially useful is English Historical Documents Volume 12 (1&2) ed. D Douglas, published by Eyre & Spottiswoode. This has extracts from Reports of Commissioners on the employment of children in factories (1833) and mines (1842), as well as later evidence (1880-90s) about health, housing, factories and poverty. It also contains information about education, some letters of Queen Victoria and an article from The Times newspaper about the Queens Golden Jubilee in 1887.
Some books written at or near the time give insight into the lives of working children or children at school, e.g.
Although there were far fewer books written for children in Victorian times, children enjoyed a variety of books, some of which have stood the test of time and can still be obtained. Here are a few of them:
Also useful is a pack produced by Barnardos: Victorian Britain by Tina Davidson. It has photographs, information and activities on many aspects of Victorian Britain as well as Thomas Barnardo. Barnardos also have a website - see Internet Sites. There are many biographies of both Shaftesbury and Barnardo available from libraries.
Many local museums run workshops on Victorian schools or working life as well as larger museums - see list below: