When To Sow And Plant Vegetables

cucumber planting

If you’re considering growing vegetables in your garden, here’s a handy month-by-month calendar to help you plan ahead. Check out our harvesting guide, too.

January

If you have a heated greenhouse, are prepared to give over your conservatory to cultivation or have a roomy windowsill, you could plant out some early seeds. Otherwise, hang fire and wait for the weather to warm up.

February

Aubergines – put them in a heated propagator or on a windowsill.
Broad beans – if you live down south, you might get away with sowing earlies now.
Cabbages – summer varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Lettuce (including rocket) – sow undercover in a greenhouse or indoors.
Onions – these need around 15 degrees to thrive, so keep them on a cool windowsill.
Parsnips – you could sow these late in the month, although waiting another month might ensure you a better crop.
Peppers –put them in a heated propagator or on a windowsill.
Potatoes – you can start chitting these now in a frost-free spot.
Radishes – if you can’t sow them indoors, use cloches outdoors, but keep an eye on cold weather.
Shallots – cover them with a cloche for best results.
Spinach – it grows quickly so don’t plant it out two to three weeks before you plant it out.
Turnips – sow thickly if you’ll be harvesting the tops for salads.

March

Asparagus – if you’re planting crowns, now’s the time to establish the bed.
Aubergines – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Beetroot – sow the seeds this month.
Broad beans – sow the seeds this month.
Brussels sprouts – plant out now for harvesting in September.
Cabbages – summer varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Carrots – early varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Cauliflowers - summer varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Cucumbers – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Kohlrabi – start seedlings off indoors if the ground is not yet workable.
Leeks – sow outdoors or in a seedbed or deep tray indoors for later transplanting.
Lettuce (including rocket) – sow undercover in a greenhouse or indoors.
Onions – if the weather is good enough, plant these out now.
Peas – early varieties could be planted out now in milder parts of the UK.
Peppers – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Potatoes – plant out earlies that have been chitting for the past few weeks.
Radishes – sow seeds under cover late in the month.
Shallots – if the weather is good enough, plant these out now.
Spinach Beet – it grows quickly so don’t plant it out two to three weeks before you plant it out.
Tomatoes – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Turnips – early varieties can be planted out now.

April

Asparagus – if you’re planting crowns, now’s the time to establish the bed.
Aubergines – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Beans (French) – sow these outdoors under a cloche.
Beetroot – sow the seeds this month.
Broad beans – sow the seeds this month.
Broccoli – sow in shallow drills, this month and next.
Brussels sprouts – plant out now for harvesting in September.
Cabbages – summer varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Carrots – early varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Cauliflowers - summer varieties can be sown now but keep them under cloches.
Celery – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Chard – once the last of the hard frosts is over, sow outdoors.
Cucumbers – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Kohlrabi - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Leeks – space them about 30cm apart in shallow drills.
Lettuce (including rocket) – sow undercover in a greenhouse or indoors.
Onions – if the weather is good enough, plant these out now.
Peas – early varieties could be planted out now in milder parts of the UK.
Peppers – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Potatoes – plant out earlies that have been chitting for the past few weeks.
Radishes - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Shallots – if the weather is good enough, plant these out now.
Spinach – reseed every couple of weeks to get a constant crop.
Spinach Beet – reseed every couple of weeks to get a constant crop.
Sweetcorn – sow these outdoors but under a cloche.
Tomatoes – start these off on a windowsill, in a propagator or greenhouse.
Turnips – early varieties can be planted out now.

May

Aubergines – sow seeds thinly in a warm, sunny spot.
Beans (French, runners) – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Beetroot - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Broccoli – if you’ve sown these indoors, move them outside now.
Brussels sprouts – transfer these outdoors now.
Cabbages – move summer varieties outdoors now.
Carrots – sow thinly outdoors in shallow drills.
Cauliflowers – sow in very fertile soil for a successful crop.
Celery – move summer varieties you’ve started inside outdoors now.
Celeriac – move summer varieties you’ve started inside outdoors now.
Chicory – sow seeds in a sunny spot this month and next.
Courgettes – sow under cover to protect from the cold.
Cucumbers – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Kale – sow under cover or in full sun for best results.
Kohlrabi - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Leeks – move indoor-sown leeks outside now.
Lettuce (including rocket) – sow every couple of weeks for a continuous crop.
Marrows – sow undercover to protect them from cold spells.
Peas – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Peppers – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Pumpkins – start these off undercover until the weather is warmer.
Radishes - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Spring onions – continue to sow these for pulling in August.
Squash – sow seeds in a sunny, sheltered spot.
Swedes – sow these thinly now in shallow drills.
Sweetcorn – sow undercover to help them thrive.
Tomatoes – if the weather’s good, these can go outdoors now.
Turnips – plant out your main crops now.

June

Aubergines – sow seeds thinly in a warm, sunny spot.
Beans (French, runners) – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Beetroot - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Broccoli – move these outdoors now.
Brussels sprouts – transfer these outdoors now.
Cabbages – move summer varieties outdoors now.
Carrots – sow thinly outdoors in shallow drills.
Cauliflowers – sow the seeds thinly in shallow drills.
Celery – move summer varieties you’ve started inside outdoors now.
Celeriac – move summer varieties you’ve started inside outdoors now.
Chicory – continue to sow seeds for the rest of this month.
Courgettes – sow undercover to protect from the cold.
Cucumbers – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Endive - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Kale – plant out any that you’ve had indoors or under cover now.
Kohlrabi - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Leeks – move indoor-sown leeks outside now.
Lettuce (including rocket) – sow every couple of weeks for a continuous crop.
Marrows – sow undercover to protect them from cold spells.
Peas – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Peppers – sow and re-sow a few weeks later for a continuous crop.
Pumpkins – start these off undercover until the weather is warmer.
Radishes - sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Spring onions – plant these now for pulling in September.
Squash – sow seeds in a sunny, sheltered spot.
Swedes – sow these thinly now in shallow drills.
Sweetcorn – sow undercover to help them thrive.
Turnips – plant out your main crops now.

July

Beetroot – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Beans (French) – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Broccoli – plant these out now if you haven’t already.
Cabbages – sow spring varieties now, and plant out any you’ve had under cover.
Carrots – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Cauliflowers – transplant autumn varieties early in the month.
Chicory – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Kale – plant out any that you’ve had indoors or under cover now.
Kohlrabi – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Leeks – if they’re not out already, move indoor-sown leeks outdoors now.
Lettuce – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Peas – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Radishes – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Spring onions – sow these now for pulling in October.
Turnips – sow your winter crops now.

August

Cabbages – continue to sow both spring and Chinese varieties, and plant out savoys.
Kale – any remaining plants should be transferred outside now.
Kohlrabi – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Lettuce - sow a hardy variety for winter harvesting.
Radishes – continue to sow at intervals to ensure a constant crop.
Spinach – continue to sow throughout this month.
Spring onions – sow a winter hardy variety for late harvesting.
Turnips – sow your winter crops now.

September

Cabbages – spring varieties can be planted out now.
Lettuce – sow winter varieties for spring harvesting.
Onions – Japanese varieties can be planted out now.

October

Broad beans – get these off to an early start in milder areas.
Garlic – plant out now before the weather deteriorates.
Onions – plant out Japanese onion sets now, covering them with a cloche or fleece.

November

Broad beans – get these off to an early start in milder areas.
Garlic – you can still plant these out this month.
Peas – sow hardy varieties now.

December

Garlic – you can still plant these out this month – and they’ll benefit from a cold spell.
Lettuce (and other winter salads) – you can continue to sow these in greenhouses, coldframes or on roomy windowsills.
Onions – sow these late in the month in seedboxes in a greenhouse or coldframe.

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